People are using cannabidiol health and wellness products for the health benefits associated with it. One of the most popular items is full-spectrum CBD oil; it is rich in cannabinoids, and other naturally found compounds in high CBD strains of hemp plants. Also, it has the added benefit of the entourage effect that enhances the individual effect of each cannabinoid. So, it is effective for treating a wide variety of ailments. In this article, we will investigate the cannabinoids, and other natural compounds found in the hemp plant.
Cannabinoids are naturally occurring compounds found in the hemp plants; they interact with the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and impart therapeutic effects. This is because they are identical in structure and function to the endocannabinoids naturally produced by our body. The two most popular and studied cannabinoids are CBD and THC. The former is popular for CBD benefits like anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticonvulsive, and antiemetic effects.
Cannabidiol (CBD): This is the major cannabinoid found in legally available full-spectrum CBD oil, and it is popular due to the multitude of health benefits associated with it. It imparts its effects by binding with the CB2 receptors of the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The other major reason for its popularity is the lack of psychotropic effects and minimal side-effects even at higher doses. Moreover, it is used for making drugs Epidiolex and Sativex. Epidiolex was approved by the FDA for treating Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome in children above two years old. Sativex used for treating the symptoms of multiple sclerosis.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): Legally available full-spectrum CBD oil contains up to 0.3% of THC. Its medical benefits include reducing pain, ease nausea and vomiting, effective sleeping aid, and useful for managing PTSD and depression, etc. Moreover, CBD and THC consumed together are more effective in managing chronic pain, and this is the reason this combination is used in the drug Sativex used for treating multiple sclerosis.
Cannabinol (CBN): CBN is produced by the oxidation of THC, and it is only found in trivial amounts in the hemp plant. It is useful due to its mild sedative effects and is considered safer due to the lack of psychotropic effects.
Cannabigerol (CBG): In hemp plants, CBG is naturally found in acidic form – cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), and its amount is less than one percent. CBGA is converted to CBG by heat treatment. Besides, CBG is not psychoactive, and has therapeutic properties like antibacterial effect, inhibiting tumor growth, reducing inflammations, and promoting bone growth. Above all, it has a higher affinity to CB2 receptors of the ECS that are associated with the immune system.
Cannabichromene (CBC): CBC is useful because it reduces inflammation and pain, inhibits cancer cell proliferation, and has neuroprotective effects.
Terpenes are natural aromatic metabolites found in full-spectrum CBD oil made from high CBD strains of hemp plants, and they give hemp plants their aroma. Their other function is to protect the hemp plant from threats like insects, and pests, etc. Listed below are the different terpenes naturally found in hemp plants and their effects on the human body.
Limonene: As the name suggests, this terpene has citrus peel aroma, it is believed to have antibacterial and antifungal effects. It is also known to have anti-cancer effects, antioxidant properties, and reduce stress levels. Last but least, it is commonly found in citrus fruits.
Myrcene: This is one of the most common terpenes found in the cannabis family of plants including the hemp plant. It has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, relaxing, and sedative effects when consumed orally. Myrcene is more commonly found in mango, lemongrass, and hops.
Humulene: This terpene has good analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, and it is naturally found in ginseng, hops, and sage.
Linalool: This terpene has anticonvulsant, sedative, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory effects. It is commonly found in mint, cinnamon, birchwood, and citrus fruits. There are other terpenes found in hemp plants as well, and their unique combination, i.e. the terpene profile differentiates between each strain of hemp plant.
Along with terpenes, flavonoids are instrumental in giving each hemp plant strain its unique flavor. Also, some flavonoids are uniquely found in cannabis plants, and they are known as cannaflavins. Listed below are the different flavonoids found in hemp plants and their effects on the human body.
Cannaflavin: This flavonoid is unique to the cannabis family of plants, including the hemp plant, and it has an anti-inflammatory effect.
Kaempferol: This flavonoid has good antioxidant properties by which it augments the body’s defences against damage by free radicals. Also, it has an anti-cancer effect, because it modulates angiogenesis, apoptosis, inflammation, and metastasis.
Quercetin: This flavonoid is also found in many fruits, vegetables, seeds, leaves, and grains, and has good antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects when consumed orally.
It is obvious by now that the therapeutic effects of full-spectrum CBD oil made from high CBD strains hemp plants is due to the synergic effect of the cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids contained in it.